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The Rise of Antibiotic-Resistant Infections
Antibiotic resistance is the type of drug resistance whereby the involved microorganism or bacteria genetically evolves to be able to resist the particular antibiotic introduced. This way that specific antibiotic cannot eliminate it so a new one has to be developed.
In medicine, it is said that antibiotic resistance occurs either due to misuse or due to abuse of antibiotics (Hawkey & Jones pg 10). In most countries, antibiotics are sold with no doctor’s prescription, mostly because everyone wants the source of income, or the physicians themselves just prescribe them, as they do not want to take time explaining about other drugs or the right mannerisms to take antibiotics. On usage, this leads to formation of resistant strains by the microorganism. Therefore, if the same drug i.e. antibiotic is introduced to the same bacteria on a later day it is ineffective. Assumptions and/or lack of knowledge by patients is also another medical course e.g. most people think that antibiotics are effective for the common cold whereas antibiotics are completely useless against viral infections (McNulty, Boyle, Nichols, Clappison, Davey, pg 63-68). Under usage of prescribed antibiotics is also a common reason for the rise of antibiotic resistance. This happens if a patient was under dosage then in the course of medication, he/she felt better thus stopped taking the medicine. This decreases the concentration of the antibiotic in the body tissues thus increasing the chances of the organism becoming resistant to those antibacteria.
Another reason that leads to resistance is the addition of antibiotics especially to livestock feed. These may affect the products i.e. meat, eggs and milk. The resistant bacteria in the animals could then be transmitted to humans through consumption of the products. However, in the case of meat, complete cooking inactivates all bacteria. Though not classified as a major reason, the use of antibacterial in products as soaps is discouraged. Practice of industrial manufacture of pharmaceuticals that is not licensed may also lead to strain formation of antibiotic resistance i.e. if certain steps in the process are skipped.
Natural reasons also lead to the rise of these antibiotic-resistant infections. In this case, the genes that pass on the resistivity are called the environmental resistomes (Wright pg 589-594). This happens due to natural genetical mutation of microorganisms. Just like any other living organism, an encounter with a substance that decreases the survival chances triggers it to try to find a way to oppose its elimination. This way the species slowly mutates and in time, it takes effect such that the organism grows to be resistant of that particular antibiotic.
Bacteria adapts to its environment in various ways among which are discussed. First, it may be in a method called inherent resistance or natural resistance. This means that the bacterium becomes resistant to the anti bacterial agent e.g., how the gram-negative bacteria are mostly resistant to penicilli.............
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