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Mr. Packer articulates two models of the justice process. Compare and contrast both models. Additionally, does our current criminal justice system operate in congruence with one, both, or none of Mr. Packer’s models? Why? Thoroughly explain your answer.
The two models of administering criminal justice as articulated by Mr. Packer are the due process model and crime control model. In comparison, both models call for the enforcement of laws during the administering of criminal justice, maintenance and control of order in the society, and protect people from injustice practices. On the other hand, the due process model and the crime control model differ in the following manner. The crime control model believes that anyone charged with a crime is guilty and must be punished for his or her actions. In general, the model aims at controlling the criminal behavior of people with an assumption that it is the most essential aspect of criminal justice. On the contrary, the due process model believes that any person charged with a crime is innocent until proven guilty. As opposed to the crime control model, the due process model calls for the freedom of a person charged with a criminal act unless their presence to the society is a threat. This model aims at protecting the innocent people while convicting the guilty (Cole &Gertz, 2013).
The current criminal justice operates using the Packer’s due process model. According to Cole &Gertz (2013), the American criminal justice aims at enforcing law and order in the society, and protecting citizens from injustices. In America, a person is innocent until proven guilty. When an individual is arrested or suspected of committing a crime, the law enforces carryout thorough investigation on the convict while he or she enjoys her freedom in the society. Only individual suspected or charged with serious crimes such as terrorism, serial murder, or drug trafficking are put behind bars while investigation are in progress.
Choose 1 of the following topics: Community Rehabilitation Programs for Adults, Death Penalty, or Rehabilitation Programs in Jails and Prisons; and answer the following questions:
(The chosen topic is rehabilitation programs in jails and prisons)
- Have the growth and investments (or lack thereof) in this area been needed?
The American federal government in collaboration with Corrections Corporation of America (CCA) has put more efforts in the process of conducting rehabilitation programs in jails and prisons. In addition, the local law enforcement has joined hands in the effort to rehabilitate prisoners in order to minimize crime rates in the country. On the other hand, the hand, most jails and prisons are overpopulated calling for the government to introduce new methods of dealing with the ever-increasing number of prisoners in United States of America. The federal government should put aside some funds to carryout rehabilitation programs to avoid congestion in jails and prisons. Moreover, rehabilitation programs will assist in reducing crimes since convicts are educated on better ways of earning a living apart from committing crimes.
- Do the policies rest on sound theoretical grounds?
Rehabilitation programs in jails and prisons have an adverse effect on the life of most criminals in the country. People with a sound mind manage and implement the policies put in place to guide these rehabilitation programs. U.S. has been building prisons since 1980s because of the increasing rate of incarceration. In the recent years, the federal government has defined new ways of dealing with law offenders, especially those whose crimes are not serious. According to Reddy and Levin (2013), implementation of rehabilitation programs increases a public safety and makes victims of crime less likely to repeat their crimes. On the other hand, the following alternative rests on sound and theoretical ground because the cost of retaining a person in prison is far much higher than the cost of implementing social programs.
- Have they been well implemented?
Rehabilitation programs in American jails and prisons have been well implemented through the introduction of post-prisons programs. CDC has implemented two programs one aiming at educating drug addicts about substance abuse and recovery while the other program offers education to crime convicts by giving them better living ideas rather than committing crimes. In addition, the US government funds non-governmental organizations that are involved in rehabilitating individuals in order to give education to prisoners and help reduce prison populations.
- Do they achieve expected outcomes?
Yes, these programs achieve the expected results where they are done effectively. According to Aborn et al (1999), the post-prison population program implemented in California delivered acceptable results during the first two years of operation. The program had over 3,500 participants and 80% of them recorded high performance rates. In addition, the US government has recorded a decrease in prison population since the introduction of rehabilitation programs.
- Have the investments been allocated to the problems and policies where the greatest gain will accrue?
The only method of ending or minimizing a crime is through rehabilitating the offender. By investing on criminal rehabilitation programs, the government has used the best alternative that aims at producing greatest gains. Reddy and Levin (2013) argue that America spends $63 billion on rehabilitation programs because prisons and jails form the second fastest growing areas of the state budget from the medical sector. Moreover, analysis from criminologists indicates that the 30% drop in crime rate occurred because of America’s investment on prison rehabilitation programs.
This article argues that there has been a shift in the role of policing. How has the role of the police changed and is it a positive change? What more can be done?
The policing role has changed for the better of the country. Several innovations have taken place in the police department. Firstly, community policing has been introduced as a modern way of ensuring total police interaction with the community to aid minimize crimes at the community level. Some of police practices associated with the current policies include foot patrols and problem-oriented policing. Community policing has brought about positive changes because it encourages order maintenance, assists in perfect conflict resolutions in societies and provides services that aim at problem.............
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