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A miscarriage, also called spontaneous abortion, is usually hard to deal with. It is accidental or natural ending of a pregnancy before a developing baby can live outside its mother’s body. Couples usually blame themselves for what has happened and it is really not their fault. It occurs in 15-20 percent of all pregnancies, usually in the first three months. Early miscarriages are due to chromosomal division errors or that the uterus, the organ in which the offspring develops, cannot with stand the pressure of the growing fetus (Miscarriage, online). According to The World Book Encyclopedia “up to 60 percent of all miscarriages occur because of defects in the embryo’s chromosomes. In most miscarriages involving defective chromosomes, the embryo cannot develop normally. A miscarriage may also occur if progesterone, a hormone necessary to maintain pregnancy, is in sufficient amount” (p. 508).

According to The World Book Encyclopedia “studies indicate that 15 to 20 percent of all diagnosed pregnancies end in miscarriage. The risk of miscarriage is highest during the first three months following conception (fertilization), during which time many women do not know they are pregnant. The over rate of miscarriage, including undiagnosed pregnancies, my actually be as high 50%” (p. 508).

They are seven different types of miscarriages. One of them is called threatened abortion which consists of bleeding in early pregnancy. It may be painless or cramping may be present. The cervix is closed and thick. Serial ultrasounds and blood work repeated over a week or two will distinguish healthy pregnancies from pending a miscarriage. Another type of miscarriage is inevitable abortion. If the cervix is open, miscarriage is inevitable. Usually the bleeding is increased and cramping is strong and rhythmic. Miscarriage is imment. Incomplete abortion is that the tissue has passed but there are some remains. Septic abortions are intra-uterine infection and they lead to miscarriages with associated fever, chills, abdominal pain, bleeding and cramping. Complete abortion is a condition in which products of conception are totally expelled from the uterus. Missed abortions are pregnancies where tissues are retained in the uterus. Recurrent abortion is a condition in which two or more successive pregnancies have ended in spontaneous abortion (Miscarriage, online).

Bleeding or spotting during early pregnancy from any source can cause cramping. The cramping is due to the passage of blood through the cervix. The blood may be from placental implantation bleeding, menstrual bleeding or bleeding due to miscarriage. Miscarriage bleeding is due to serval factors (Ingalls & Salerno’s Maternal and Child Health Nursing p.178-195)

According to Mirkin (2000) “the study shows that one cup of coffee a day increases risk for miscarriage by 30 percent, three to four cups by 40 percent and five cups doubles a women’s chances of a miscarriage. Caffeine intake increases the risk of miscarriage in non-smokers that drink four or more cups of coffee per day” (online). Miscarriage increases by 20 percent to 30 percent with this level of coffee intake. The study he did not include women who had morning sickness or vomiting during the first three months of pregnancy. Morning sickness causes vomiting which causes women not to drink coffee.

The Link between Abortion & Breast Cancer (online) indicated a significant risk of breast cancer due to early abortion, both spontaneous and elective. A women’s first full pregnancy causes hormonal changes which permanently alter the structure of her breast. The complete process greatly reduces the risk of breast cancer. A premature termination of a first pregnancy interrupts this process. Instead of protecting the breast from cancer, abortion leaves millions of breast cells suspended in transitional state. A first trimester abortion, both miscarriage or surgically induced appear to interrupt the breast maturation process at the worst possible time. When cells are reproducing the fastest, the risk that there will be an error reproduction is the highest. Cancer results from cells whose reproduction runs amok.

Ultrasound can confirmed miscarriage if the embryo measure out to 5mm in length from the head to the rump- “crown rump” length, and a fetal heart rate is not identifiable. Fetal heart rate can be identified in living infants this size is larger.  An ultrasound testing has to be done before determine the end of your miscarr.............

Type: Essay || Words: 1437 Rating || Excellent

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