Impact of employee motivation on job satisfaction

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Abstract

Motivation plays a significant role in the performance of an employee in an organization. Business and management experts that tend to ensure an organization maintains and treats its employees well have developed several types of motivation. A study carried out at Sultan Qaboos University forms the case study for this topic. According to Ivancevich (2010), employee motivation assists in improving their productivity and performance at work in order to make an organization achieve its business objectives. The following discussion focuses on three main questions. First, it determines factors contributing to some employees performing better than others do. Secondly, it determines the reasons why some employees seem more satisfied in their jobs compared to others, and finally, it provides a recommendation to the management on how to create job satisfaction.

Key Words: Motivation, Job Satisfaction, Employee Performance.

Findings

            The information acquired from Sultan Qaboos University senior staff seems to lay more emphasis on priorities undertaken by the University in motivating the staff. These are better supervisor-employee relationship, better remunerations, gratitude of work accomplished, work security, enhanced working conditions, promotions and development, loyalty to employees, discipline maintenance, and interesting working condition. The Maslow Hierarchy of needs theory gives an understanding of employee motivation using a comparison of these results. Tables 1, 2 and 3 represents the results achieved.

Answer Options Response Percent Response Count
Male 53.6% 54
Female 46.4% 46
answered question 100
skipped question 0

Table 1: employees’ responses in percentage

Answer Options Strongly Agree Somehow Agree Neutral Somehow Disagree Strongly Disagree N/A Rating Average
My supervisor enables me to perform at my best. 15 42 25 15 3 0 3.48
I feel appreciated for my work and achievements 7 41 27 15 10 0 3.10
Performance appraisal activities are helpful to get motivated 10 30 40 10 10 0 3.10
I receive the right amount of recognition for my work 15 10 45 20 10 0 2.90
My organization supports my work-related training and development 24 15 50 10 1 0 3.50
Overall, i am satisfied with the opportunities for training continually. 1 38 29 27 5 0 2.98
My advancement (i.e. Promotion) on the current job is satisfactory 7 12 58 16 7 0 2.89
The work itself is interesting and challenging 11 22 48 18 0 1 3.23
My work environment is  safe, comfortable and appropriately equipped 12 39 21 16 9 3 3.11
Top Management is interested in motivating the employees 10 25 36 20 9 0 2.98

 

Table 2: Impact of Workplace Motivation on Employee Job Satisfaction

 

Figure 1: A bar graph showing the impact of employee motivation on job satisfaction results for table 2

Answer Options Very Satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Very Dissatisfied Rating Average
Salary, Benefits and Frequency and amount of bonuses 3 24 50 23 0 2.86
Promotion policy with my salary package 4 20 44 32 0 2.66
Organization overall compensation and promotion potential. 7 22 40 30 1 2.76
Relationship I have with my co- workers 6 38 39 16 1 3.18
Communicate with your supervisor 4 44 39 9 4 3.28
The opportunity to use new technologies 12 34 46 8 0 3.44
Organizational Policies motivate for achieving its aims and objectives 0 14 42 44 0 2.28
Balance my work and personal life 9 24 33 33 1 2.76
Job security policies & facilities 3 40 42 15 0 3.18
Overall satisfaction with your job 4 24 44 28 0 2.78

 

Table 3: Impact of Workplace Motivation on Employee Job Satisfaction

Figure 2: A bar graph showing the impact of employee motivation on job satisfaction results for table 3

 

Data analysis

            All statistical analysis was based on the assumption that the sample (N= 100) came from a normally distributed population. The above analysis was reasonable given that Howel (2002) proposed a sample size of 25 to 30 that is considered sufficiently large for many researches. The data analysis will make use of the Coefficient of correlation calculation and Regression analysis to answer the research questions. Three questions will be answered from this analysis with the help of graphs and tables.

Determining the coefficient (r) of correlation between results on table 2 and table 3

No. Table 1 (X) Table 2 (Y) XY X2 Y2
1 3.48 2.86 9.9528 12.11 8.1796
2 3.1 2.66 8.246 9.61 7.0756
3 3.1 2.76 8.556 9.61 7.6176
4 2.9 3.18 9.222 8.41 10.112
5 3.5 3.28 11.48 12.25 10.758
6 2.98 3.44 10.251 8.8804 11.834
7 2.89 2.28 6.5892 8.3521 5.1984
8 3.23 2.76 8.9148 10.433 7.6176
9 3.11 3.18 9.8898 9.6721 10.112
10 2.98 2.78 8.2844 8.8804 7.7284
6.46 5.64 18.24 20.99 15.91

 

Table 4: Impact of employee motivation on job satisfaction (average)

Using the formula:

r =  …………….. (1)

where; n = 10

From equation 1;

r = {10(18.24)-6.46*5.64}/√[10*20.99-6.462][10*15.91-5.642]}

= 0.954

The coefficient of correlation ranges between -1 and 1. The results show a coefficient of 0.954 or 95.4% hence, the variables have moderate positive correlation (Edwards 1984).

            On the other hand, the results will be analyzed using Regression analysis method. Table 5 shows will help in calculating the regression.

No.  xi  yi (xi – ẋ) (yi -ȳ) (xi – ẋ)2 (yi -ȳ)2    (xi – ẋ)(yi -ȳ) 
1 3.48 2.86 2.834 2.296 8.032 5.272 6.507
2 3.1 2.66 3.100 2.660 9.610 7.076 8.246
3 3.1 2.76 3.100 2.760 9.610 7.618 8.556
4 2.9 3.18 2.900 3.180 8.410 10.112 9.222
5 3.5 3.28 3.500 3.280 12.250 10.758 11.480
6 2.98 3.44 2.980 3.440 8.880 11.834 10.251
7 2.89 2.28 2.890 2.280 8.352 5.198 6.589
8 3.23 2.76 3.230 2.760 10.433 7.618 8.915
9 3.11 3.18 3.110 3.180 9.672 10.112 9.890
10 2.98 2.78 2.980 2.780 8.880 7.728 8.284
6.46 5.64 5.81 5.08 16.91 13.00 29.512
Mean 0.646 0.564

 

Table 5: Regression analysis table on impact of employee motivation on job satisfaction

The regression is a linear equation of a form: ŷ = bo + b1x. In order to conduct a regression analysis we need to solve for bo and b1. The computation is shown below:

b1 = Σ [ (xi – ẋ)(yi – ȳ) ] / Σ [ (xi – ẋ)2]   and  b0 = ȳ – b1 * ẋ.

b1 =  29.512/16.91

= 1.745

b0 = 0.564 – 1.745*0.646

= -0.563

From the above results, the regression equation is

ŷ = -0.563 +1.745x

table 6 shows regression values for our research

No.  xi  yi ŷ
1 3.48 2.86 5.51
2 3.1 2.66 4.85
3 3.1 2.76 4.85
4 2.9 3.18 4.50
5 3.5 3.28 5.54
6 2.98 3.44 4.64
7 2.89 2.28 4.48
8 3.23 2.76 5.07
9 3.11 3.18 4.86
10 2.98 2.78 4.64

 

Table 6: regression analysis values

From the above results, only values within the range of 4 and 6 were used to determine the  impact of employee motivation on job satisfaction.

Coefficient of determination (R)

            The coefficient of determination is used to determine how well the equation fits the data. This is derived from the following formula:

R2 = { ( 1 / N ) * Σ [ (xi – ẋ) * (yi – ȳ) ] / (σx * σy ) }2

Where N is the number of observations used to fit the model.

σx = standard deviation for x

σy = Standard deviation for y

the computations are shown below:

σx = sqrt [ Σ ( xi – ẋ )2 / N ]               σy = qrt [ Σ ( yi – ȳ )2 / N ]

= √16.91/10 = 1.691                              =  √13.00/10  = 1.3

R2 = { ( 1 / N ) * Σ [ (xi – ẋ) * (yi – ȳ) ] / (σx * σy ) }2

= {(1/10)*29.512/1.691*1.3}2

                                    =  0.5548

The coefficient of determinant of 0.5548 or 55.48% was realized an indication that the data obtained shows positive impact of employee motivation on job satisfaction for Sultan Qaboos University senior staff.

Discussion

What makes some employees perform better than others?

            Table 2 and 3 represent the response to research questions that targeted in knowing the reasons why some employees perform better than others do. The performance of employees is directly promotional to the treatment they receive at a workplace. Various factors determine the performance between one employee and the other of the same organization and doing the same duties. The research carried out on members of the selected Sultan Qaboos University senior staff is evidence that the performance levels of employees differ. Different organizations have different initiatives for employee motivation at workplaces that determine their performance (Gonrig 2008). Using the data from the two tables, the coefficient of correlation can be calculated as shown below. The response counts for the two tables are used in analyzing the coefficient of correlation of the results.

         

 

According to Mullins, employee’s motivation process creates a force that helps in transforming and uplifting an individual’s productivity hence increasing performance. An organization that maximizes its employee’s motivation always accomplishes its business goals and objectives and meets set targets (2002). Various forms of motivation that assist in improving the performance of employees hence, creating the difference in performance of one employee to the other.

To start with, it is of importance noting that every individual has his or her own needs and desires. Managers and supervisors at work play a significant role in the performance of an employee. Supervisors affect employees’ performance through empowering management styles, openness and availability, constructive communication and working with authenticity (Small Business 2013). From the research, out of 100 employees interviewed only 15 had a strong believe that their supervisors assist them in performing their duties. In addition, just three had no trust in their supervisors. The above statistics show that supervisors play a great role in the performance of employees at workplace. This forms a strong factor that affects different employee’s performance. The higher the employee builds trust with the supervisor, the higher the performance hence, the source of differences.

The Frederick Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory of Motivation can perfectly explain the role of supervisor and manager in employee performance. According to this theory, managers and supervisors should have an understanding of what causes employee performance in an organization (Basset-Jones, 2005). Various things including recognition, achievement, meaningful work, opportunities and responsibilities motivate people affect employees performance (Herzberg 1959; 100-120). Responses from the second question also signified the relationship between employees and their managers. The results collected from the interview shows that a bigger percentage never got an appreciation for their works or achievement. The type of motivation provided by the supervisor in terms of giving employees credit for their work affects differe.............


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