Human Factors and Team Resource Management

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Introduction

Essential aero-medical factors to aviation professionals

Aviation professionals must consider varied aeromedical factors in the course of their aviation careers. These include stress, alcohol, medication, illness, emotions, and fatigue. It is worth noting that these factors often affect their capacity to make proper decisions in different circumstances. In instances where they are stressed, their capacity to make rational decisions may be hampered immensely (Bowers et al, 2001). This is the same case for some medication and alcoholic beverages, which usually affect not only their capacity to make decisions but also their capacity to act on the decisions or coordinate their body parts appropriately.

Principles of Aeronautical Decision Making (ADM) Model

The importance of effective Aeronautical Decision Model cannot be underestimated. This refers to a systematic approach to mental process that airplane pilots use so as to consistently determine the most appropriate way of responding to varied circumstances. As much as there has been continued progress in advancing services for pilots, airplane systems and equipment, and pilot training techniques, accidents continue to occur (Bowers et al, 2001). This may be attributed to the fact that despite the technological advances aimed at enhancing flight safety, the human factor remains the same. Indeed, more than 75% of all accidents in the aviation industry are attributed to human factors. However, varied principles have been devised to guide ADM model including workload management, communication and situation awareness, as well as attitude management.

Attitude management refers to the capacity of an individual to recognize hazardous attitudes in themselves, as well as the willingness to change them as necessary through applying the proper antidote thought.

Situational awareness, on the other hand refers to the accurate perception and comprehension of all conditions and factors within the basic risk element affecting safety in the course of, after, as well as prior to the flight (Bowers et al, 2001).

Workload management underlines the importance of remaining aware of the operational environment, as well as anticipating contingencies.

Topics in CRM Programs

Crew Resource Management has been an extremely crucial in the aviation industry. It underlines the application of skills and knowledge pertaining to human factors on the conduct of flight operations with the aim of utilization of all available resources efficiently to attain safe flight operations. It blends knowledge in human factors and individual skills with efficient coordination of crew. As much as commercial air transport is arguably the safest technique of transportation of people and goods, there exists a high likelihood for loss of life in instances where accidents occur (Bowers et al, 2001). As much as human error is credited with a high percentage of accidents, it is worth acknowledging that humans interact with numerous other factors. This, however, does not negate the fact that humans are the fundamental cause of every accident as they ultimately interact and design all elements in the wider environment (Peterson, 2006). Contemporary crew resource management concentrates on the management of the available resources in an effort to reduce human errors including all categories of aviation specialists via teamwork, awareness, goal setting, as well as reactive and proactive feedback.

Varied topics identified in CRM may be categorized under two groups.

  1. The process of communication and decision behavior. This involves external and internal influences on interpersonal communications. Internal factors may include decision-making and listening skills, speaking skills, conflict resolution techniques, as well as advocacy and appropriate assertiveness (Peterson, 2006). Subtopics in this category may include briefings, Assertion/ advocacy, conflict resolution, crew self-critique, as well as decision-making and communications.
  2. Team maintenance and team building. This category of topics emphasizes on effective interpersonal relationships, followership and leaderships and includes interpersonal practices and relationships. It would also involve recognition, as well as dealing with different operating styles and personalities (Peterson, 2006). Subtopics in this case may include interpersonal relationships, leadership, vigilance and preparations, situational awareness and workload management, distraction avoidance, and stress reduction.

Evolving Concepts of Crew Resource Management

As much as CRM may have been necessary in enhancing safety in aviation, the changing environment has rendered it i.............


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