Human Cooperation

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Considering Darwin’s theory of evolution, human existence from the very start has been highly dependent on cooperation. The ape-man relied on their cooperation ability to fend off enemies, win new habitats, and most situations gather and hunt for food. Human survival was oft under threat in circumstances when they were not in their mobs. Moreover, that is a characteristic that still defines the existence of other apes. Main reason is that there were more sizeable and ferocious animals in the jungle and only communal effort could protect the entire community. A mother would not protect her children from the beast from instance a lion, nor would a single hunter subdue a witty antelope to supplement the family diet. The communal effort that was projected by man during his evolution that partially propelled into dominance still marks human characteristics today.
Cooperation is the compliance of providing assistance to the realization of a goal. In a sense, it is the will to work at either end of the team to pull out a task. Individuals who want take it all but offer no pay back undermine the whole concept[1]. Human cooperation is the most significant on the planet and has elevated them to the positions of the most dominant creations on the planet[2]. Not only do humans work together, they also think together and provide eminent solutions to dilemmas and challenges. Their ability to gather and transmit social information way much better than the rest of animals on the globe catapults the harmony and teamwork[3].
The factor of human cooperation is very significant especially because there are no two beings of the same ability in all aspects. One must most of the times exhibit superiority over another, however slight, in a particular field[4]. For instance, making reference to the ape-man, one ape could be skilled at running, another at setting traps and another could be a marksman and superb with arrows and spears. If the three went out hunting together, there would be the highest likelihood of a kill for the day and healthy meals for their families[5].
Mechanisms have been fronted to define the essence of human cooperation. They include pseudo-reciprocity and interdependence, reciprocal behavior, and social dilemmas. Reciprocal behavior is a form of investment that involves the reversal of roles and positions from provider to the recipient. Individuals who provide assistance in one aspect would, therefore, get the help in other situations. It thus is emanated as a payback.
Pseudo-reciprocity and interdependence revolves around the fact that survival is more eminent in groups[6]. Factors that are challenging to others in one aspect can be filled in for by other individuals. As such, an individual always has a role to play in assisting the continued survival of others. No individual is over-reliant on one. Consider, for instance, a hospital setup where a doctor plays his or her roles, leaves the testing procedurals for the individuals at the lab and the caring of the patient to the nurses.
Social dilemmas are more challenges than direct cooperation[7]. In such scenarios, some members of the team are always reluctant in directly cooperating and are coerced into cooperation with either incentives or threats. Reason being; they drag a team by taking from them and offering nothing in compensation. Solutions to the dilemmas have always led to more cooperation and team success.
Human cooperation is all about the ability to set aside the elements of competition and weigh the possibilities of individual success[8]. However, many a times it comes so instinctively and calls for no mental reflection. For instance, in situations that requires assistance or rescue from the jaws of death. A case for which, firefighters and rescuers rushed to the bombing scene of the world trade center in the U.S in 2001. They had little consideration of their safety. The result was an experienced team of rescuers buried in the rubble, waiting for another team to perform their duty for them. As such cooperation can drive mankind to his destruction.
Usually, there are two factors that determine the cooperation that kind that could be disastrous. The first, the one discussed above, is an instinctive drive that pushes individuals to dangerous situations with little consideration given to thought.
The second is the nature of attachment that the human species have towards each other[9]. They share the pain and suffering of other individuals and hence the drive and the urge to ease their suffering. That is a factor dependent on the desire to be assisted in any case one gets mired in such a situation. That is the kind of cooperation always witnessed in battlefields as soldiers take to rescuing others from dangerous war zones risking their lives in the process.
In as much as human cooperation has been a driving force for their survival and existence, it could be detrimental to human survival[10]. Instincts and hormones drive the blind rush to commit to certain activities always. As has been observed in primates, instinctive reactions always lead to more death. The latest case that marks such dangerous cooperation is the Ebola pandemic in West Africa that has called for the response of doctors all over the globe. In some other instances, entire human existence has been threatened by cooperation especially during wars[11]. Armies conspire and cooperate with others and carry out operations that can lead to the extinction of an entire nation, like the German extermination of Jews or the Rwanda genocide.
In some situations, however, the same cooperation has always led man to the understanding that instinctive cooperation is dangerous. As such, man practices self restrain so as not to succumb to the desire to assist/cooperate. That derives basis from the ability to comprehend that more danger or casualties are likely to be suffered in some cases, rather the heroic salvation.
However, humans owe to their cooperation, way much more than their intelligence, their survival and dominance of the universe[12]. Human intelligence only played a role in his ability to comprehend the situations and create more diversified means to improve life and increase survival. Moreover, the ability to cooperate is also driven by factors of intelligence just as much as instincts.
Maintenance of the cooperative interactions is possible because they have benefits both for the present and the future. Intelligence has evolved the cooperation to include mechanisms that are meant to reinforce it, for instance, punishments and rewards. That is because man understands the benefits and that need to participate in communal activities[13]. On the average, such behaviors always sire the actor’s indirect and direct fitness.

The Eminent Mariwal Tribal War

Tribal wars bear repercussions and sometimes unbearable casualties. Such disputes and conflicts derive basis from the desire to exhibit dominance over other communities or could be driven by the urge of self-protection or even vengeance. Always grumbling and fighting over matters of little significance, the fighting could be misinformed and is many a time misinformed. Other times, information is just misinterpreted[14].
The Mariwal situation is barely different and bears the emblem of a misinformed course. It is a dispute that revolves around allegations that the Mialis are planning an armed attack on their neighbors, the Mariwals. Significantly, it would grow into a conflict if the Mariwal proceed with their plans of invasion on the Mialis as they seek to stop the planned attack that targets them. The situation is further complicated by the Chinabels tribe who are considering cooperation with the Mialis to repel the Mariwals. To note is the fact that the Chinabels have superior weapons. Moreover, they are ready to use them, unlike the Mariwals. As such, there are three tribes mired in the dispute but at this early stage, solutions can be presented and the situation nipped in the bud.

The advance of the situation throws the Mariwal tribe into dilemma on how to handle the situation. That is because an advanced attack on the Mialis would jeopardize the security of their people as a result of an attack by the Chinabels. The Mariwal leader should hence send two contingents, one to the Chinabel tribe and another to the tribal chiefs of the Mialis. The first would have the duty of informing the Chinabel tribe that their intention is not start a war, but to stop a possibly cooking war. Moreover, if they intended any serious war, they could have carried their rifles to use in the process. That would persuade the Chinabels to observe the situation and examine the rationale of the situation and arbitrate to avoid a possible war/conflict[15].
The other contingent would purposely meet with the Mialis tribal chiefs to inquire into the credibility of the allegation that has resulted to the situation. Considering that they have taken positions, the Mialis chiefs will be compliant to verify if anything to the information is accurate or refuse to do so. Either way, an insight into the credibility of the information will be provided.

Considering that disputes are caused by imperfect knowledge and reasoning and human emotions, I would first indulge in unearthing the underlining factors that led to the buildup in an attempt to solve the matter. For instance, when the new leader was informed of the planned invasion, she failed to analyze the reliability of the information on one hand. On the other hand, she failed to launch an investigation to determine the reality in the allegation. Not only could she be misinformed in this case, but could also be acting under the guidance of emotions that fail to assist her digest and comprehend the factors in the situation. Moreover, the warning/persuasion that has been presented by the Chinabels is a pointer that the decision that has been made by the Mariwal leader is probably based on untruth/false allegations. However, presenting solutions at this stage would curtail the dispute and stop its progression into a conflict.
The Chinabels will only get involved in the situation if it progresses to conflict. As such much of the solution presented for the dispute would less involve them. In resolving the dispute, I would first consider the possible barriers. The Mariwal would be possibly affected by the feeling of insecurity and on the other hand, the Mialis would opt to adamantly stand by their fixed position of attacking their rivals so to gain superiority. My second step would hence involve reframing the dispute and remolding the matters at hand so that I can reach my desired solution. That would involve convincing the two parties that letting the dispute grow into a conflict would only bear tremendous repercussions on them and not present them with the results they so desire. For instance, I would inform the Mialis that the Mariwals also have in their possesion riffles that they intend to use if the situation gets out of hand. On the other hand, I would gravitate the impact of fighting on two fronts against the Chinabels and Mialis combined to the Mariwals.

Communicating with the two parties to present an amicable solution would involve mediation and negotiation. That would involve having the two parties present their grievances and presenting them with solutions that guarantee peace. [16]

Prior to the tense buildup, one would be convinced that the Mariwals are pursuing a decent and a well deserving course, that which calls for defense against unreasonable attacks. Their plan is barely that of disarming the neighbors because they also have the same purported weapons as Mialis, but are not planning to use them. A scenario that leads to the questioning of the advance arises. The plea of the Chinabels, coupled with threats to express a level of sincerity pours cold water on the degree of information on which the Mariwals were acting.

I would hence advice the Mariwal leader to make the following considerations;
A well-schemed tribal war is always never aimed at containing the activities of others, but rather at making significant wins and depriving rivals of resources and freedom[17]. In any case, there could have been a ploy by the Chinabels maybe with the Mialis; the plan could not have been to use threats to persuade the Mariwals with threats to stop their advance. War advances are always marked with the trick of halving an army’s strength by surprising them and probably attacking two fronts. The Chinabels could have hence possibly taken the battle to the villages and homes of the Mariwals to distract them and lend an upper hand to the Mialis.
To note is the fact that the Mariwals have managed to take positions around the Mialis with little reaction from them. That gives a pointer that the Mialis are probably not ready for any war and have not been training as had been purported. In any case, they had not mastered the art of using the superior weapons, thus, the Mialis could resort to their usual crude weapons for self-defense. Moreover, they would take out the rifles to scare their attackers which even if they have, their knowledge is limited how to use them[18].
The dilemma that has been presented to the Mariwal leader appears technical if little analysis is given to every aspect of tribal war. However, the action that has been taken by the manager to issue orders to the soldiers to maintain their position is precautionary enough just in any case there is an element of deception in the whole affair. It is relevant that they keep the order as investigation on the information source that led to the build-up.
Advancing to war at this situation would not only to lead casualties, but may throw the new leadership of the tribe in jeopardy[19]. That is a prime a position that has been grabbed by a female among many contenders and possibly some tribal males who think they have more right to the post than the elect. There could be conspiracies that serve the purpose of portraying the new leadership as inept, inadequate, and incompetent. Such forces could want the public to be convinced that the new leader makes irrational decisions that put the security of the entire tribe at detriment. As such, the public would lose confidence in their new leader and probably call for a re-election before the leader learns the tricks of leadership at the helm.
As such, chances are high that the false information that has led to the build up and threats on the Mariwal tribe could have had its origins from such corners. The conspiracy is hence based on an understanding of human cooperation and the desire of all humans to team up to fight what they perceive as wrong[20]. Cooperation not only serves to protect the interests of parties as in the case of the Mariwals, but also serves in fighting circumstances that threaten the very human existence and security. In circumstances like this, cooperation to further attack the Mialis could be detrimental to the Mariwals. However, cooperation with the Mialis to stop the attack would be of benefit to the three tribes.
It is also advisable that the Mariwal should then withdraw even if they prove that their actions were not misinformed. The basis for doing that is that they were not prepared for an attack from the Chinabels. Withdrawing would give the paramount chief all the time to plan a new and indulge into fighting on two fronts or convince the Chinabels to cooperate with them[21]. As such, the Chinabels would assist them pursue the same cours.............


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