How Migration Impacts On The Development Of Poor Countries

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Introduction

Migration involves the movement of individuals from one place to another. Economically and socially, migration has both positive and negative effects to both developing and developed countries. The effects of migration on host countries are different from those of home countries, where the immigrants originate. This paper brings out the various ways in which migration impacts on development efforts of poor countries. The issue of migration has been a major topic for a number of reasons. Some of the reasons are associated with effects of migration to the host countries and the countries from which people migrate (home countries). The other major reason for the concerns could relate to insecurity issues and other social issues, which could have some links with development impact on poor countries.

Migration impacts economic development of poor counties but the economic conditions that prevail dictate the direction of the impact (whether negative or positive). People migrate because of various reasons. Some people migrate to look for better jobs or other related economic opportunities. Other reasons could be the search for better education or skills/knowledge, family reunions, or escape from violence (House of Commons 2004). Other people could have a combination of reasons. Whichever reason why people migrate from a poor to a rich country or from a rich to poor country, there are some associated negativities. Essentially, some people would migrate to other countries for evil reasons entirely.

Positive Impacts

The main essence for people to move from poor to developed countries is achieve some economic benefits.  First people targeting foreign education of work experience gain new skills and experiences that could be used in their home countries. The migrants hardly cut ties with the poor countries, from which they originate implying that their main goal is to benefits their relative back home. It follows that the best way that poor countries could benefit is through the benefits that their families in the home countries receive. Many people migrate to developed countries to seek employment opportunities. They mainly leave their families back home after which they would often send them some money (Clemens 2011). The money sent from host countries to the home and poor nations contributes much to development activities in such countries.

Another factor that could enhance economic development in poor countries is idea and knowledge sharing. The host countries are mainly developed and rich in knowledge resources. The host countries are characterized by rich resources in education with most of the top colleges, universities, and other learning institutions being situated in such countries, like the United States, the United Kingdom, and other developed countries. This aspect makes it possible to join top institutions for better knowledge, which is then sent back to the poor countries. Such process promotes k knowledge and idea sharing, which could be applied in various areas to facilitate development projects in the poor countries. After acquiring better skills and knowledge from the developed countries, people can return to their home countries to apply the same skills in various projects that play key roles in economic developments within the poor countries (Spilimbergo 2009).

Remittances also add to the list of the various ways in which migration impacts development in poor countries. Developing countries get significant amount of remittances. Such remittances play a key role in economic development in the poor countries. Remittance flow is very critical in creating a good source of foreign exchange as well as a source of financial aid to the developing countries (Ratha 2003). The remittances are mainly enhanced by people’s migration, which also generate international flows that are less volatile as compared to other capital flows.

Individuals migrating from developed countries could do so for various reasons, most of which bring much benefit to the development of poor countries, which in this case act as the host countries. Some rich and successful business persons migrate to poor countries to make use of business opportunities that could be available. Direct foreign investments in the poor countries become available through such business initiatives. Given that the poor countries have high records of unemployment rates, newly established businesses, by foreign investors, reduce some of the unemployment problems preventing economic development (Clemens 2011).

The major problems facing developing countries are poverty and social issues. Official foreign aids and foreign investments, aided by migration, help in solving poverty and social problems through job creation. When people get employed, they gain enough economic power to manage their lives in better ways. They gain the ability to afford most of their basic needs including education. Education can empower such individuals or their children to achieve better economic and social lives. Social crimes, which are associated with poverty, reduce dramatically (Putnam 2007). The social and economic wellbeing of people in the developing countries are partially associated with migration, either to the developed countries or to the poor countries. This happens through financial and knowledge transfers from the developed nations to the poor countries.

Negative Impacts

The impact of migration on the development of poor countries is not always positive. Some negative impacts that are highly associated with migration exist. In the last few decades, migration has been acknowledged to enhance international developments but the effect on poor countries is a bit devastating. Poor countries have less development factors that could attract a significant number of people from other countries. In most cases, individuals migrating to poor countries are mainly attracted by the underutilized resources or they could be pressurized by negative forces such as wars or related calamities. The latter only increases pressure on the poor country’s economy since such people would be sharing the few economic resources available in the poor nation. Migration resulting from pressures caused b.............


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