How Le Corbusier’s 5 point in architecture take a role in modern architecture

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Research Paper: How Le Corbusier’s 5 point in architecture take a role in modern architecture

Introduction

Le Corbusier made a great contribution towards realization of the goals and objectives of the modern architecture. Charles-Edouard Jeanneret (Le Corbusier) was a Swiss architect, urbanist, painter, writer, and designer born in 1887[1]. He was one of the pioneers of the International style or Modern architecture. His career spanned for five decades, which resulted into five critical developments in the field of architecture. In 1926, two years prior to the onset of the Villa Savoye, Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret contributed to the development of the new or modern architecture through publication of a manifesto or declaration entitled “five points towards a new architecture”[2]. Brevity of the manifesto limits its ability to explain the importance or relevance of the five points to the works of modern or international architecture. In spite of this, Le Corbusier became the man to whom ideas were fundamental[3]. It is ideal to demonstrate some of the interesting results of Le Corbusier’s thought process. Le Corbusier’s five points: supports, roof gardens, free design of the ground plan, horizontal windows, and the free design of the façade made great developments in realization of the goals of the modern architecture. This is evident in the Villa Savoye building as one of the iconic constructions of the 20th century.

Problem Statement

Le Corbusier’s five points: supports, roof gardens, free design of the ground plan, horizontal windows, and the free design of the façade made great developments in relation to modern architecture or international style. There have been diverse debates on the role of Le Corbusier’s five points on the modern architecture with reference to specific buildings in the 20th century. In this research, the focus will be on examination of the influence of the Le Corbusier’s five points on the development of the Villa Savoye in Paris, France. The report will integrate an extensive overview of the Le Corbusier’s five points with the aim of understanding the critical definitions of the key points with reference to modern architecture. In addition, the report will analyze and illustrates the concept of Le Corbusier’s five points in the development of the building[4]. Finally, the report will generate concrete conclusions with reference to the key points in relation to modern architecture.

Overview of Le Corbusier’s Five Points of Architecture

The Supports/Pilotis or Slender Columns

It is ideal to distinguish between the elements of a problem to solve it scientifically. In the case of a building, it is needed to make a critical distinction immediately between non-supporting and supporting elements. This is an indication that earlier foundations, which hosted buildings without a mathematical check to be replaced by individual foundations and the walls by individual support. It is critical to calculate the supports and support foundations with reference to the burdens they are called upon to carry. In addition, constructors need to space the supports at specific or equal intervals without the thought for the interior arrangement of the building. This is an indication that the supports rise from the floor to 3, 4, 6 meters while elevating the ground floor.

This provides an opportunity to re-move the rooms from the dampness of the soil. Moreover, the rooms have light and air while leaving the building plot to the garden. The garden consequently passes under the house. According to this point of new or modern architecture, the same area should also be gained on the context of the flat roof. This is aided by the influence of the slim or thin columns raising the building from the ground.

The roof gardens

In the context of flat roof, it is critical to oversee systematic utilization for realization of domestic purposes. These include development of the roof terrace and roof garden. On the other hand, there is need to ensure protection for the reinforced concrete to withstand variation in temperatures. In order to prevent over-activity with reference to reinforced concrete, architectures should focus on maintaining constant humidity on the context of the roof concrete. The roof terrace has the ability to offer valuable satisfaction for two demands: generation of a rain-dampened layer utilizing sand covered with the concrete slabs with lawns in the interstices and acting as the earth to the flowerbeds in direct contact with the layer of the sand. This approach will ensure that the rainwater flows off in an extremely slow speed. Waste pipes are developed into the interior building.

In addition, the point to modern architecture focuses on maintaining the latent humidity on the roof skin in a continuous manner. The roof gardens will be vital towards demonstration of the highly luxuriant vegetation. There is also an opportunity to plant shrubs and small trees up to about three or four meters. This is an indication that the point of modern architecture is vital in ensuring that the roof garden is the most favored place in the building. It is vital to note that the roof gardens mean to a city the recovery of the built-up area.

The free designing of the ground plan

It is ideal to note that Le Corbusier’s third point to modern architecture demonstrate the role of the support system. The support system focuses on carrying the intermediate ceilings while rising up to the roof. Architectures have the opportunity to integrate interior walls wherever necessary. In spite of this opportunity, each floor must be independent of each other. In the modern architecture, supporting walls are not effective. Modern architecture focuses on maximization of the membranes of any thickness to provide the needed support. This has contributed towards realization of an absolute freedom with reference to designing of the ground plan. The approach focuses on maximization and utilization of the available means towards easing the process of offsetting high cost of the reinforced concrete development or construction[5].

The Horizontal Window

The horizontal windows operate in conjunction with the intermediate ceilings as well as supports. This is toward formation of rectangular openings in the façade facilitating the passage of light and air into the building in copious manner[6]. It is ideal to note that the windows are horizontal because of their ability to extend from support to support. The adoption and integration of the horizontal windows have been essential towards the disappearance of the vertical windows and annoying mullions. This Le Corbusier’s point focuses on lighting the rooms equally from wall to wall. According to research studies, this development contributes towards enhancing illumination of the rooms in comparison to illumination of rooms with vertical windows characterizing traditional architecture rather than modern architecture. It is also critical to note that the history of architecture relates to the concept of wall apertures. Implementation of the horizontal windows enhances the ability of the reinforced concrete to offer maximum illumination to the building. This is an illustration of the need to develop from the traditional architecture to the international or modern architecture.

Free design of the façade

Projection of the floor beyond the supporting pillars in the form of a balcony all round the building is vital towards extension of the façade beyond the supporting construction. This forces the construction to lose its supportive quality and extension of the windows at any length in accordance with the preference of the constructor or the architect. There is no direct relationship between the windows and the interior division. In modern architecture, there is an opportunity for designers to design façade freely. These Le Corbusier’s five points are fundamentals of the new aesthetic, thus lack of sufficient concepts of interests in the traditional architecture[7].

The Role of Villa Savoye by Le Corbusier Plays In History of Modern Architecture

            Villa Savoye is the manifesto of modern architecture because of its ability to incorporate the five points of architecture. The iconic building is situated in a small commune just outside Paris, France. This building represents the most important contributions to the modern architecture in relation to developments in the 20th century. The building was completed in 1929 with an objective of representing the modern French country house with the ability to celebrate and react to the new machine era[8]. It is ideal to note that Villa Savoye was critical towards transformation of the Le Corbusier’s thought process into fundamentals of the international or modern architecture style. This process was the most significant architectural precedents in the history of architecture.

The building has the ability to define the house in relation to merchandized entity through its detachment from the physical context in the 20th century. The villa Savoye, iconic building, is an effective and accurate illustration or demonstration of Le Corbusier’s five points with reference to the new or modern architecture developed in 1927. The building has the ability to maximize the new opportunities in relation to reinforced concrete.

Figure 1[9]

This building is an incorporation or integration of the five points in relation to the international style or modern architecture. This is an indication that it is one of the most significant buildings demonstrating the transition of architecture from the traditional elements to the new approach in the modern architecture in the 20th century. In this section, the focus will be on examination of critical images of the building illustrating components or elements of the five points of modern architecture.

The Pilotis (supporting columns)

As one of the five points of the new or modern architecture, Villa Savoye is a building or a house on the pilotis. This provides an opportunity for the house to be driven firmly into the ground. The ground is usually a dark site or a damp site. Utilization of reinforced concrete offers the adequate support for the building aiming to withstand weather adversity in the modern society of the 21st century. In addition, the house incorporates the first point in relation to modern architecture by being up in the air or far from the ground. Finally, it is critical to note that the garden runs under the house thus an extensive demonstration of one of the five points of modern architecture.

Figure 2[10]

The Roof Gardens

Villa Savoye demonstrates the second points in relation to the five points of the new or modern architecture as in the case of the development of the roof gardens. According to the five points of architecture, there is an opportunity for the garden to appear over the house or on the roof.

Figure 3[11]

From the above picture, the building has the garden over and under the house. The existence of the garden on the roof of the building is an illustration of the influence of the five points of architecture towards development of new buildings in the 20th century. Generation of the garden on the roof requires exploitation of the reinforced concrete. Reinforced concrete focuses on the generation of a unified roof structure thus facilitating realization of the goals and objectives of the approach of modern architecture. Reinforced concrete has the ability to expand willingly and considerably with reference to the preferences of the designer.

The expansion is essential in making the work to crack in certain conditions contributing to the sudden shrinkage of the buildings. There is need to maintain the constant humidity rate in relation to concrete of the terrace contributing to an even temperature on the context of the reinforced concrete. This process is vital towar.............


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