Hookah and Human Health: Health and Social Risks of Hookah in Saudi Arabia

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Table of Contents

Section                                                                                                                                             Page

  1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

Description of the Local Problem…………………………………………………………………………… 3

Rationale of the Local Problem and Purpose of the Study……………………………………. 5

  1. Review of Literature……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6

Hookah Usage……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6

Health Risk………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8

Research Question(s)……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11

  1. Description of Proposed Research Methods and Procedures…………………………………………… 11

Methods…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11

Procedures…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11

References……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12

Hookah and Human Health: Health and Social Risks of Hookah in Saudi Arabia   

Section 1

Introduction

Description of the Local Problem

One should note that there are different means for smoking tobacco throughout the world. One of them is the use of hookahs. A hookah is defined as a water pipe designed for smoking the flavored tobacco. It is also known as shisha, argilah, goza, or hubble-bubble. The hookah requires the use of the flavored tobacco in order to give it a different taste from that of a cigarette (Chaouachi, 2009).

Cobb et al. (2010) argue that the use of hookah has substantially increased over the last two decades in the world. The tendency is particularly evident among the youth aged from 18 to 25 years. The high level of the hookah smoking has also led to the establishment of bars where smoking is the most popular activity. The research shows that a large number of hookah smokers think that smoking tobacco through hookah poses less risk than smoking it through other means including cigarettes.

According to Ahmed et al. (2011), medical experts have found that a single shisha session might be as dangerous as smoking 200 cigarettes at once. It is explained by the fact that cigarettes contain more than 4000 chemicals and toxins. Furthermore, smoking increases the health risks around the world (Almohrej, Altraif, Tamim, & Fakhoury, 2014). In the United States, about 2,242 online shops sell hookah tobacco and related products. Moreover, approximately 175 hookah lounges and cafes can be found only in California. It is important to underline that in Los Angeles, most of the cafes are located near universities and college campuses (Hanna, O’Connell, & Woo, 2014). However, the popularity of hookah smoking is larger in Middle Eastern countries than in the United States (Griffiths, Harmon, & Gilly, 2011).

Rationale of the Local Problem and the Purpose of Study

Rationale of the Local Problem. The rationale for the study is the observation that nations of the Middle East experience a high level of hookah use. Its effect in Saudi Arabia is worse than in the USA because of the easy access to hookah in every region. The health risks associated with hookah smoking also influenced the choice of the local problem. Saudi Arabia has a high rate of the health and social risks associated with smoking hookah. It have forced the government to introduce effective prevention measures and prohibit the use of hookah in the country (Baboor, Alnazzawi, Abu-Hammad, & Dar-Odeh, 2014). Cigarettes pose a significant health threat to smokers and non-smokers. However, hookahs are more perilous than cigarettes (Chaouachi & Sajid, 2010). In Saudi Arabia, smoking in public places has been prohibited since 2004. However, the country occupies the fourth position in importing tobacco worldwide. Moreover, the tobacco consuming (including hookah smoking) has led to the economic loss. The loss accounts for approximately 20.5 billion dollars for the last ten years (Almohrej, Altraif, Tamim, & Fakhoury, 2014).

There are different health and social risks related to the hookah smoking. The former ones, which are associated with hookah smoking in the short term, include raising the blood pressure and heart rates of smokers. It puts smokers at a high risk of developing such conditions as cardiac arrests and strokes (Ben, 2009). Also, hookah smoking results in damaging the major arteries of the body that results in the limited supply of blood to the brain (Mirjana, Steven, & Zang, 2010). In addition, the water pipe usage contains the same toxicants as cigarettes, including drug nicotine, cancer causing, pulmonary disease, as well as acute intoxication caused by the carbon monoxide (Eissenberg, 2013). Furthermore, hookah smoking is directly connected with the adverse pregnancy outcomes, especially a low birth weight (Hanna, O’Connell, & Woo, 2014).

The Purpose of the Study. The purpose of the study is to develop an education Reference Judie for the Saudi Arabian hookah smoker. The Reference Judie will help to understand the risks of hookah smoking. It will help to substantiate the claims regarding the rate of risks associated with hookah smoking in the country. Since the previous researches have already identified some risks caused by the hookah use, the study aims at determining the level of these risks. The ways of becoming addicted to hookah will also be the central focus while the developing the education Reference Judie.    

Section 2

Review of Literature

Hookah and Human Health: Health and Social Risks of Hookah in Saudi Arabia

Section 2

Review of Literature

Hookah Usage

Definition of Hookah.  The notion of hookah should be comprehended as a waterpipe used to pass charcoal heated air through tobacco and through a water-filled chamber (Chaouachi, 2009).  The synonym of hookah, shisha, specifically constitutes for the particular sort of tobacco that is used in hookah. Its peculiar characteristic features are moistness and stickiness as a result of being soaked in the extract of molasses or honey. There are also other names of this type of tobacco, for instance, narghile, goza, arghileh, or hubble bubble (Chaouachi, 2009).  Shisha is also characterized by variety of flavors, which are usually fruit ones, whereas exotic scents include caramel, cinnamon, mint, and other extraordinary options (Eissenberg, 2013).

History.  Hookah is an ancient tradition that has been deeply rooted in the culture of many countries, especially in the Eastern part of the world (Chaouachi, 2009). Smoking hookah has been traditional related to Middle Eastern, Asian, African, Indian, and Turkish cultures for more than 500-year-old (Griffiths, Harmon, & Gilly, 2011 ).

India and Middle East.  According to Ray (2009, p. 1319). “Hookah smoking has been practiced for over 400 years.” The court of Emperor Akbar started using and popularizing the habit of hookah smoking (Ray, 2009).

The first hookahs are regarded as primitive and simple in comparison with the modern ones. The basis for the first hookahs was a coconut shell and a tube with a so-called ‘head’ attached (“Hookah Smoking: A Growing Threat to Public Health”, n.d.). Moreover, it is very important to highlight that the initial tobacco for smoking via hookahs was not a contemporary mixture of shisha and fruit, but some time for hashish and opium in India (Ray, 2009).

The art of making hookah became more popular, and it is relevant to emphasize the fact that masters of hookah were treated with significant respect at that time as far as the procedure was very complicated and required special skills and knowledge. The hookah rooms were situated in the coffee houses and cafes (Ray, 2009).

It is essential that there was no difference in terms of sex, and both male and female representatives smoked hookah in India (Ray, 2009). Hookah started in India, then, smoking hookah extended to Persia and the Parisians were called it Narghile.  Then it spared to Turkey, and Ottoman Empire at the early of 17th century.  Later, hookah practice extended to North Africa and the middle of the Middle East (including Saudi Arabia) and it was called shisha (the glass bottle) (Ray, 2009).

Europe.  The hookah has been practicing in Europe since the British came to India at 1950s, and some of them smoked the hookah for a fashi.............


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