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The research to analyze from American Psychological Association is in Education sector. The report, written in 2004 is titled, “Have Your Children Had Their Anti-Smoking Shots?”Attitude Inoculation dramatically reduces teenage smoking rates.”
Does the author provide an overview of the problem to be addressed in the study?
The Author provides an overview of the topic by referring to literal works by early psychologists. The author points out the published works of William McGuire, social psychologists who published some classic paper in the early 1960s. William wrote on people’s attitudes about things; he states that it is easy to change people’s attitudes about things that they wholeheartedly accepted as true (Botvin, Schinke, Orlandi, 1995). His example was that speakers armed with little knowledge of persuasion can easily convince masses that brushing there is not a brilliant idea. At this stage, the reader can understand the intended background by the author is about public beliefs and practices.
To provide a better understanding of the topic, the author gives more insight of William’s work. He elaborates how William argues that it could be possible to train people to resist attacks on their beliefs by constantly teaching them on how to resist arguments that they refute. He used the example of the human body and its ability to resist diseases (Watts & McGuire, 1964). The body produces antibodies which make one’s immune system prepared so that in cases of full blown attack, the body can mount a fierce challenge with the real viruses and bacteria.
Did the author present evidence of knowledge of the topic of research through references to and descriptions of relevant and current research?
The author presented a substantial evidence of research. The use of William McGuire’s works illustrates use of past research. The use of William’s work provides the reader with background work on the topic. When writing an article it is important to introduce the reader of the past and current research that has been done on the topic. This enables the reader appreciate the effect of past research on the issue being discussed (Perry, Killen, Slinkard & McAlister, 1980). In discussing the published works of William, the author is able to effectively relate the topic to the article. At the end of the introduction the author the author notes “McGuire coined the phrase attitude inoculation to refer to the process of resisting strong persuasive arguments by getting practice fighting off weaker versions of the same arguments”. Part of the heading has the words “attitude inoculation.”
The author also quotes the works of Cheryl Perry and colleagues (1980). Perry’s work is used to underline the impact of role playing in the fight against cigarette smoking. Perry’s idea was to prepare younger kids to resist temptations by elder kids to join them in smoking. The use of this study re-affirms the author’s intended message to the reader; use of attitude inoculation to reduce teenage smoking rates (Hirschman & Leventhal, 1989). The author also uses the works of psychologist David Myers in concluding the report. David advises teachers and parents on teaching kids how to resist cigarette smoking. He adds that it is easy, inexpensive and always successful. The author adopts such a conclusion with hope of inspiring the reader to try the strategies outlined in the report. It also confirms that the author’s opinions are in line with experts views.
How did the author make the case for the importance of the research question?
The author first presented a background that illustrated what early psychologists suggested with reference to attitude inoculation. This enables the reader to appreciate that the ideas being reflected in the report have been captured in the past (Myers, 2002). The reader will therefore appreciate that the author has researched on the topic thoroughly. Authors are expected to capture the attention of the reader from the opening paragraph as readers are often dismissive. One of the best ways to capture the reader’s attention is the use of past research. The author is able to merge the pat theories with the current theories thereby enabling the reader appreciate the relevance of the topic with respect to current issues (Watts & McGuire, 1964).
In identifying the significance of the study, the author justifies the reason for his report. The issue has .............
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