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The on-going controversy over abortion in US excites like no other topic for over two centuries. The issue continues to dominate the media and public, and; therefore, abortion has divided the country, society, families, religions and politics. This is evident with the emergence of two opposing groups (pro-choice and pro-life) with different ideologies. The controversy seems to arise from the struggle over whose deep-rooted morals and beliefs are good for society.
The pro-life strongly condemn the act of abortion, and they want abortion to be declared as an illegal act. Some pro-life organizations and groups include the Pro-Life Action League, National Right to Life and Prolife America. They view abortion as a vulnerability to their life morals and values. On the other hand, the pro-choice advocate for legalization of abortion i.e. women should have constitutional rights to have control over their body. They call for sexual awareness programs, access to contraceptives and trained doctors to provide abortion. The proponents like National Abortion Rights Action League, Planned Parenthood and the national Abortion Federation are fighting against restrictions to abortion such as 24-hours waiting periods, mandatory parental notification, right of doctors to deny contraceptive and abstinence. They believe that such initiatives are spreading misleading, false and distorted information to the public (Hopely, Carr, Chon, Harari, & Chavez, 2006).
One of the major debates about abortion arises from the question of when life begins. The pro-life debate that the commencement of life is a biological fact, given their understanding that existence begins at the moment of conception; hence, the commencement of life is not a moral, personal or religious debate. Therefore, if the right to life, i.e. the right to live and develop naturally on earth, is to be taken as the key privilege of a human being, then abortion should be regarded as one way of violating this assumed right. Pro-choice on the other side, argue that the question of when life starts, is frequently undermined as a spiritual question. Hence, their position is not a moral judgment call but the right of a woman. Also, the proponents assume that the fetus is rather a potential person and not a person. Hence, its right should not be same to an actual person (Hopely, Carr, Chon, Harari, & Chavez, 2006).
About contraceptives, or sexual awareness, the pro-life believe that the most desirable and appropriate contraceptive is abstinence or family planning (least option). They believe contraceptive can accelerate juveniles’ desire for sex in the first place, resulting to early pregnancies. It is clear that pro-life followers are aware that contraceptives means are readily available and can lead to reduction in the abortion rate. Therefore, this implies that they reject the method on social and religious grounds. The position of the pro-choice is to legalize emergency contraceptive to ladies and non-surgical abortions. They believe this will transform abortion in US by making it more available and confidential. This is more fueled by the proposed HB 16, an act that will allow pharmacies to refuse to issue out emergency contraceptive like plan B. a pill bars egg fertilization, implantation in the Uterus or even ovulation. The drug can also reduce the chances of a lady becoming pregnant by 89% since it is a concentrated dose of birth control pill (Hopely, Carr, Chon, Harari, & Chavez, 2006).
Also, the pro-life proponents agree that women possess the right to control their own bodies; however, this does not substantiate the right to end a fetus’ life through abortion. They believe that there are several ways an expectant woman can deal with a problematic situation that do not necessarily resort to abortion. They assume the nine months of mental and physical burden required to raise a child to terms. Here, their reference bases on moral claims due to lack of evidence to why a lady should have a say over her body and not the right to decide whether she needs an abortion or not. On the other hand, the pro-choice followers not only champion for constitutional rights of a lady to have privacy, but also abortion primarily a struggle for a lady’s right to manage her body. They condemn unjustifiable government infringement in to women’s private and personal affairs. Their supportive evidence includes the comparison of the death-rates from legal abortion as least than from a shot of penicillin (Hopely, Carr, Chon, Harari, & Chavez, 2006).
Another controversy arises from pregnancy due to incest or rape.............
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