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Euthanasia, a Moral Issue
A critical analysis of Gay-Williams article: EUTHANASIA, A MORAL ISSUE
Williams articulates his assertions citing his arguments from the laws of nature. This argument is centered on the idea that killing ourselves is immoral, therefore, in the same vein; a physician killing is also immoral (Munson, 1979). This is because, according to William, in violation of the natural impulse for self-preservation is, thus, against human nature. Coupled with this theory, are very crucial ethical principles of bioethics, which as autonomy, no maleficence, beneficence, and justice (Munson, 1979).
The principle of autonomy clearly advances the notion that any rational person is and should be self-determining and able to make own decisions (Munson, 1979). This is in contrast with paternalism, where medical practitioners make decisions that are independent of the patient and his family. On the other hand, Williams agrees to the need for autonomy, which in many instances may not be absolute (Munson, 1979). Essentially, patients need to respect the integrity of medical professions and their ability to refute irrational wishes for unsuitable or vain care and treatment. Nonetheless, it is understood that patients who are not contended with the availed treatment should seek treatment options elsewhere as second options (Munson, 1979).
Clearly, active euthanasia according to Williams, which could be viewed as assisted death by utilitarians, violates these principles. As such, it is false to allude that ill people must expect agonies and humiliation from which death in itself is the only merciful release.
Williams Arguments: Summary
Humans, as Gay-Williams asserts have a natural predisposition to continue living. This is self-fostered in the practice of care and caution necessary to look after ourselves in our daily lives (Munson, 1979). Moreover, Williams relays that our reflexes and responses aid us in fighting attackers, hide from wild animals, and respond fast to alarms. In addition, Williams alludes to the fact that our bodies are structured for survival right down to the molecular level (Munson, 1979). When we are cut, our capillaries seal shut, our blood clots, and fibrinogen is produced to start the process of healing the wound. When bacteria invade us, antibodies are produced to fight against the alien organisms, and their remains are swept out of the body by special cells designed for clean-up working. Hence, the act of killing violates this natural goal of survival. Therefore, this is exactly acting against nature because all the processes of nature are inclined towards our survival (Munson, 1979).
Gay-Williams further notes that the organization of human body and patterns of behavioral responses make the continuation of life a natural goal. Thus, th.............
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