3PL industry in Kazakhstan

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3PL industry in Kazakhstan

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Methodology

This part describes the procedure that was used during the testing of the hypothesis, collecting of data and management of data upon which this study was based. The chapter additionally explains the method that was used during data analysis and the description entailing the scope of the procedure that eventually led to the answering of the hypothetical questions that was generated previously. Unlike research methods that are used by researchers to refer to distinct techniques that are applied while carrying out a research study, research methodology describes the vast number of processes that a researcher involves while studying specific phenomena. Methodologies therefore refer to the systematic process through which a research study is carried out. Research methods are categorically part of the methodologies that are utilized by a researcher while carrying out a research study.

Methodology is a critical step while carrying out a research study in that through literature review, one is able to know whether it is a study that has ever been done and if so the methods applied previously and the outcomes that were gotten. It therefore assists the research in determining whether his/her methods have been used in the past and what other methods have ever been used. Moreover, the methodology may depend on the research being either structured or unstructured within the qualitative/quantitative analysis.

Critique:

The conceptual or theoretical research studies such as the current study are guided by some abstract ideas or theories. Testing of the hypothesis, answering of questions as well as interpretation of the findings is based on some predetermined body of knowledge or theories. The theories are assumed conventional and thus universally acceptable. The research paradigm adopted as either being qualitative or quantitative is equally very instrumental in deciding on the methodology to be applied (Maxwell, 2008, p. 214-218). Qualitative and quantitative research studies depend on the major differences notable on the nature of reality, epistemology (relationships being studied), use of language, role of values as well as the overall research process (Aylward and Clarke, 2005, p.29).

Analytical methods especially the empirical analyses are applicable within the context of testable variable within studies. Some other relationships are not testable hence; the studies adopt the deductive methodologies of carrying out a research study. On the other hand, whenever research variables relate in manners that are both predictable through theoretical deductions and can be testable, the studies will employ the use of the two simultaneously. Deductions from the study findings will then be applicable in general context within the capacity of the study to project and make inferences (Key, 1997, para 1-3). By conducting this study under the deductive framework and by use of qualitative analysis, the study methodology was not unique, as others had used the methodology in the past. However, uniqueness was ascertained by the specific analysis engaged within this study as opposed to the other studies carried out in a like or related analysis.

This study therefore relied on the literature in reference to the theme of ‘as to investigate the development of 3PL industry within Kazakhstan and evaluate the contribution of the current business environment and government policies towards the overall development of the industry’. This was through analysis of case studies, which would present the information as was necessary for the qualitative analysis. Besides, structured questionnaires were instrumental in collecting the primary data as given by the sampled 3pl companies operating within the country. Primary data was more relevant in this study though with support of some secondary data for analysis of the past because through the first hand data, there would be a reduction in the errors to be incorporated within the entire research study.

Research Design

The research design describes a unique procedure that the researcher intends to use to go about the data collection exercise. In case study, the researcher identifies a specialised situation and undertakes a comprehensive study or research around the situation. This study therefore identified the case of interest to be as to investigate the development of 3PL industry within Kazakhstan and evaluate the contribution of the current business environment and government policies towards the overall development of the industry. This study was qualitative and thus information to be collected was not quantitative. This study employed deductive methods in analyzing available past research studies in order to successfully study the development of 3PL industry within Kazakhstan and evaluate the contribution of the current business environment and government policies towards the overall development of the industry.

Every research undertaking has a particular design upon which it is carried out. The research design describes a unique procedure that the researcher is going to use to go about the data collection exercise (Kofi-Tsekpo, 2008, p. 4-9). For the present research, the researcher employed the use of both qualitative and deductive research methods, which means that the research design must be one that can satisfy the requirements of all these two forms of methods (Leighton and Foster, 2013, p. 3-7). In case study, the researcher identifies a specialised situation and undertakes a comprehensive study or research around the situation. Besides deductive framework for such research studies is a critical component in describing the design decided on. For instance, in the current research, the research studied the development of 3PL industry within Kazakhstan. It also evaluated the contribution of the current business environment and government policies towards the overall development of the industry in the country. With the use of a case study, the research got the opportunity of setting up a sample size within the population of the case and collect data from the respondents within the sample size. This form of data collection is referred to as primary data collection because it is a comprehensive way of collecting first hand data from the field of study without having to depend on any second or third parties. At the same time, there is the opportunity of collecting secondary data through the use literature review.

The research design adopted for this study was thus qualitative with a particular preference of primary data, which was targeted from sampled segment of the population. The study focused on investigating a real case within the 3PL companies in operation within Kazakhstan. The adoption of primary data was therefore critical in order to minimize biasness from time as well as from tools used in collection of the data. Adoption of questionnaires as tools of collecting data were also strategic in enhancing reliability of data collected as well as improving on secrecy and security of the information given by the respondents. The research design adopted therefore was comprehensive and effective in realizing the research objective of deriving qualitative and relevant research findings, which would be used representatively in policy formulation, and decision-making processes.

Population

The formation of a population and a sample is a very important practice for the primary data collection process. This is because the primary data collection requires the collection of data from an identified group of persons who fit within a given scope of variables outlined by the researcher (Mwangi, 2009, p. 2-11). The population refers to the total number of people within the setting where the data collection exercise will take place. In reason of reliability, and in order to ensure that data collected can be a perfect representation of all 3pl companies in Kazakhstan, the researcher used stratified sampling in order to identify the respondents to the questionnaires as the tools adopted for primary data collection. The companies sampled are well distributed within the country and for those international companies they are well established in operations within the country. The population identified was thus a good representation of all companies operating within the 3pl industry in Kazakhstan; incorporating the local companies as well as the international corporations in operation there. Due to the nature of the study, which required some level of feedback from the respondents, the researcher used structured questionnaires which would be mailed to the respondent and in the case of extreme rush, the questionnaires would be administered in person by the researcher(s). With proper information, the researcher would be also interested in having the feedback from interested players within the industry in the country.

This therefore implied that wide segment of players in the 3PL industry in the country would be involved in the process of collecting data, which would be very instrumental in qualitative analysis. Besides, the primary data collection method by administration of questionnaires within these companies increased probabilities of reduced biasness as would be blamed on third party data as is stored within other books or works of research. The analysis was therefore comprehensive and will therefore be effective if the whole population of 3pl companies is targeted. Nevertheless, the ease of use of questionnaires as well as the cost implication explains the choice of the tool for collecting data. Through sampling, questionnaires reduces the costs incurred while administering the questionnaires and in the general process of collecting data. It is worth noting that the higher the number of companies used, the more tedious is the process of collecting data as well as the higher is the price implication. Proper and effective sampling does not only reduce the costs involved but also enables the researcher to effectively and efficiently collect representative data which would be depended on in analysis and deriving of conclusions.

Sample and Sampling Technique

Unlike a survey, in a case study of this nature, it is always advised that a sizeable number of people be used in the data collection process (Ndulo, 2011, p. 529-536). This is because using fewer companies/people ensures that there is a closer study of the case at hand rather than making generalised observations and interpretations (Pickett and Hanlon, 2010, p. 1-6). The sample was made of companies and people who were going to be directly involved in the data collection process and which represented the attributes of the population. Basic characteristic of a good sample is representativeness where the sample adopted in collection of data should exhibit the full character traits of the whole population from which it is gotten. This therefore implies that sampling techniques adopted must maintain this basic requirement in order to have the data collected as a good representation of the entire population’s traits. To this end, the researcher used just 18 companies out of the many other 3PLcompanies. This was done through sampling technique whereby the researcher first used a purposive sampling technique to sieve the respondents according to a given variable and then later used random sampling to select the final set of respondents from the sieved sample. Sampling of the companies depended on:

  1. Local companies
  2. Multinational corporations
  • Diversification of services
  1. Over ten years of operation

After the sieving was done, a random sampling technique involving the use of a fish-bowl method was used to select the final sample of the respondents identified. Through the sampling method, this study targeted the following companies for collection of data:  World Freight Alliance, Global Trans Logistics, Pony Express, High Tech Logistics, ART Logistics, STS Logistics as well as the RLS Company. Others in the list were the ‘Central Asian Logistics Management’, DHL, UPS, Admiral–TSV, Spark Logistics, ASAU Trans, VIAS Group Kazakhstan, Premium Logistics, TRANCO and Jet Logistics.

Data collection tools: Research Instruments

This study depended wholly on the primary data through questionnaires as well as the secondary data that was collected from the literatures on 3PL companies in Kazakhstan. Because the researcher wanted to achieve qualitative research by the exclusive use of primary data collection, the researcher was to use a single research instrument that fulfilled this goal for the sample sizes. It had been proposed earlier that interview was going to be used on the company representatives but because interview produces more of qualitative results as against deductive ones (Wilkinson and Wilkinson, 2008, p. 736-739), a questionnaire was going to be used throughout the entire sample size.

Questionnaire: A questionnaire is a piece of paper that contains written questions, of which the respondents are expected to answer through writing. The questionnaire used offered a number of advantages including the fact that it made the collection of qualitative data using close-ended questions easier (Xue et al, 2010, p. 1-5). What is more, whiles using the questionnaire, the respondents had some time to review the questions critically before answering them. This means that unlike an interview where answers are collected outright, the researcher would give out the questionnaires and come back after a period for the responses or questionnaires were mailed to the respondents who upon answering the questions would mail back the responses. This would ensure that there was much credibility with the answers that were gathered from the respondents (Yuri et al, 2007, p. 1-4). A similar questionnaire design for the sampled companies was employed in order to establish similarities as well as to avoid biasness. Administration of the questionnaires by individual researchers would be used when necessitated by the need for one-one correspondences.

Primary data collection

The primary data collection was made up of the distribution of questionnaires to respondents and guiding them to answer questions on the questionnaires for the questionnaires administered by the researchers or guiding through the phone or mail. Generally, the primary data collection latest for fifteen working days with an approximate of two days spent in each of the companies as aided by the working of the researchers as a team. In each company, one day was used to undertake the distribution and familiarization of the questionnaires while during the other day, the actual answering of the questions was done with the necessary guidance whenever needed. Upon settling on the sample sizes to use, a mini conference was organised to make known to the respondents the aims and objectives of the study and what their role as participants was. As part of the conference, the questionnaire and its content were thoroughly explained to the respondents. Respondents were given the chance to ask all questions that were on their minds and were going to be useful to them in the course of answering the questions. After this, respondents were given three days starting from the day of receiving the questionnaire to answer the questions on the questionnaire. On each of the days within the three days, the researcher visited the respective companies to interact with the respondents. This accorded the respondents the chance to ask any questions of clarification that came up in the course of answering the questionnaire.

 

 

Organization of the study

This study is a qualitative study, which relies wholly on literature deductions to establish the relationship between the use of English idioms in written works and the spoken English as well as analyze the causes of such challenges as the students experience in interpreting idioms. The study will be organized in distinct chapters based on major research study parts, which are introduction, literature review, methodology, findings and analysis as well as deductions and conclusion. Besides, the last segment will include recommendations on possible future areas of study in the same theme.

Ethics

As part of academic and professional practice, a number of ethical considerations were made in the conduct of the current research. These ethical considerations were made with reference to both the qualitative and quantitative methods of the research. As far as secondary data collection, which formed the qualitative study is concerned the researcher ensured that all sources used for the study were well referenced to avoid any form of plagiarism, which is a serious academic offence. Referencing of sources was done for both in text and end of text citations. As far as primary data collection is concerned, much of the ethical attention was given to the involvement of the participants who were selected for the study. In the first place, an official permission was sought from the university and official letters sent to the various companies for their consent to participate within the research study. Adoption of questionnaires as tools of collecting data are also strategic in enhancing reliability of data collected as well as improve on secrecy and security of the information given by the respondents. Next, a consent form was prepared for all the participants to read and clearly understand their role(s) as participants. The consent form also explained to the participants the aims and objectives of the study as well as measures taken by the research to ensure that the confidentiality of the participants and their responses was kept. For example, the individual respondents were not expected to write their names on the questionnaires and there was not going to be any third party agent who was going to handle the questionnaire other than the researcher.

Safety and security of the data collected from the companies was of paramount importance to this study. This is because, as part of the preparation, the researchers committed to collect and handle the data safely in order to guarantee the safety and security of sensitive information disclosed by the companies. The researcher therefore adopted such measures that guarantee no tampering with the data for research through minimizing the number of participants in conducting the research. Besides, it is worth noting that the questionnaires were to be disposed appropriately after the analysis of the data to minimize occurrences of data tracing after the actual results were gotten. The findings of the study that would be shared out contains no traces of the company from which the information was gotten and this ensures that secrecy in origin of the data is guaranteed besides minimizing cases of misconceptions from the data. Data collected through the questionnaires was transferred into digital data storage devise which the researcher had absolute access. Through the conversion of the hard copy-data into soft copy, the risk of misplacement of the data through which unauthorized persons would gain access to it was reduced. The study also acknowledged the necessity to handle respondents carefully besides having them cooperate at consent by the company and self where necessary.

 

 

Chapter 4: Analysis and discussion of results
Data analysis

The process through which systematic application of statistical as well as logical techniques in describing and illustrating data is what is called data analysis (Kawulich, nd, p. 96-103). Various tools applied in the analysis are adopted for providing ways of drawing inferences from such data as collected and in the process distinguish between the phenomenal of interest from the statistical fluctuations (noise) from such data through the process. It is worth noting that though qualitative analysis involves systematic application of various tools in analyzing collected data, in most cases, analysis of data occurs simultaneously as the data is being collected. However, particular analysis tools and techniques are adopted varying from the particular phenomenon being studied as well as the nature/form of data being analyzed (‘University of Washington Professional & Continuing Education’, 2013, para 1-2). Appropriate analysis of findings from a research study is paramount to ensure the integrity of the data collected is observed which reveals the level of reliability of the findings resultant from the study. On the other hand, the improper analysis of scientific studies is blamed on distorting the study findings, misleading the readers as well as having the capacity to have a negative influence on the public towards the authenticity of such studies in the future. It is therefore paramount to observe integrity in the entire process of analyzing data collected from a research study. The process of data analysis depends on particular attributes that must be taken note of which include having appropriate skills for the analysis, being able to effectively decide on means of data collection as well as the data analysis tools, capacity to draw unbiased inferences, pursuing the appropriate discipline norms as well as the capacity to undertake statistical tests. It is also paramount that one is able to train staff involved in data collection for the sake of reliability as well as validity. Analysis of data also relies on the capacity of a researcher to present data correctly, recording data correctly as well as the provision of accurate and honest data analysis (.............


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3PL industry in Kazakhstan

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Advantages and disadvantages of thinking out of the box

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Advantages

  • You may act and think differently from the rest so you can come up with fresh new ideas which no-one has ever thought of and you are more able to think out of the box. There is much concern that this method will not only offer different idea but also offer reliable information for decision making.
  • You may get more time to yourself. This will offer an individual time to analyze the answers on board or the solutions
  • It makes you special and you stand out from the crowd. This creates a leader from the others and prestige kicks on
  • People may like you for having interesting different things to say. This gives an individual a chance to become a leader among the others because of always coming wi.............

Type: Essay || Words: 324 Rating || Excellent

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